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Lüppo Ihno Ellerbroek
Does chicken become healthier?
An inven­tory on the basis of the rates and reasons for condemnation of poultry meat from 2002 to 2017 in German slaughterhouses

Ist das Geflügel gesünder geworden?
Eine Bestandsaufnahme auf der Basis der Beanstandungen bei der Geflügelfleischuntersuchung von 2002–2017 in Deutschland

This evaluation was designed to review the condemnation rate of poultry meat as well as grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions (GDACs) encountered in German poultry slaughter houses from 2002 to 2017 to determine which findings could indicate retrospective health conditions of live poultry. Modern chicken breeds for fattening are selected especially for fast growing and an optimal feed conversion together with a high proportion of the most valuable breast meat. In contrast, breeds for laying hens are selected for maximal egg production and less muscle volume. However, the unidirectional genetic selection focused to a higher muscle/bone-relation or maximal laying productivity has created (in connection with modern animal husbandry) breeds which are very sensitive for specific diseases and syndromes if their environment, feed and management is imbalanced. The evaluation of German meat inspection data concerning the overall condemnation rate from 2002 to 2006/2017 and GDACs from 2002 to 2017 indicates an almost constant rate both for the condemnation and the GDACs of broilers, laying hens and turkeys. The overall condemnation rate for broiler oscillates between 1 and 2% with falling tendency until 2014 and since then an increase for 2017 to 2.8%. For laying hens the portion of meat condemned amounts for an average rate of approximately 3.6%. The condemnation rate for turkey meat varies between 0.8 and 1.4% with a slight increase of condemnation since 2015. Although GDACs are created for food hygiene purposes, many of them like ascites, dermatitis and leg irritations arise undoubtful from animal health and animal welfare conditions. These findings together with the GDACs like hematoma, bruises, and breast blister were selected to indicate health conditions of live poultry. According to the evaluation of existing meat inspection for the last two decades the overall condemnation rate and most GDACs remained on the same level and could not prove a progress in an enhanced health status of poultry. Although the current scope of meat inspection performance is primarily to safeguard consumer health, a thorough evaluation of suitable findings and performance indicators associated with animal health and welfare would complement future meat inspection outcome.

Nina Langkabel, Roswitha Merle, Lüppo Ellerbroek
Comparative examination of neck and breast skin samples of broilers after chilling
Vergleichende Untersuchungen von Halshaut- und Brusthautproben von Broilern nach der Kühlung

For process control, Reg. (EC) No 2073/2005 lays down process hygiene criteria for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. on carcasses of broilers. The purpose of this study was to compare the microbiological condition of neck skin and breast skin ­samples of broilers after chilling. In total, 115 carcasses were sampled and from each carcass neck skin and breast skin samples were examined for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Salmonella spp. (qualitative), and Campylobacter spp. (semi-quantitative and qualitatively by PCR). Salmonella could not be detected. Wilcoxon-test for paired samples showed significant differences between the sampling locations of each carcass for aerobic plate count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae count and Campylobacter spp., respectively. As assumed, APC values for neck skin samples of all microbial parameters were higher than the ones for breast skin samples. Campylobacter-positive PCR results were obtained from 77 carcasses. 72 carcasses out of these were positive in both sampling sites, which indicated a 93.5 % agreement of positive samples, and a kappa of 0.64. Therefore, breast skin could be used for detection of Campylobacter spp., although detection rates were significantly lower for breast skin (p < 0.001). The opportunity to use breast skin if not enough neck skin is available is given in Reg. (EC) No 2073/2005, but if breast skin is used widely, it must be considered that the detection rates would be lower due to the sampling location. To prevent future uncertainty and possible ­underestimation of Campylobacter rates in poultry the sampling site used should be an indispensable part to assess the microbial result.

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The impacts of fish protein isolate addition on the nutritional and quality properties of chicken frankfurter during cold storage (4 °C)
Auswirkungen der Zugabe von Fischeiweißisolat auf die ernährungs­physiologischen Eigenschaften und die Qualitätsmerkmale von kalt gelagerten (4 °C) Hühnerwürstchen It is important to maintain the sensory quality and shelf-life of the final product, while increasing the nutritional quality of the meat product and reducing the cost of production. It was aimed to combination of fish protein isolate prepared from discard fish and chicken meat for frankfurter production to provide both add value to the discard fish and to enlarge the nutritional quality of the final product. The amount of chicken meat used in frankfurter sausages was reduced by 10%, 20% and 30%, and pony fish protein isolates were added instead. Peroxide, free fatty acid and TBA values were determined below the acceptable limits during storage for 47 days, while all sausage groups were found to reach to the limit of non-consumption on day 26 according to TVB-N and TVC values. However, according to the sensory evaluations, the 30%FPI group had a shelf life of 33 days, while the 20%FPI and 10%FPI groups had a shelf life of 40 days and the 0%FPI (FPI-free) group had a shelf life of 47 days. The least textural deterioration was observed in 20%FPI group, however, texture feature of 10%FPI group was the most close to control group. The addition of fish protein isolate to chicken sausages has improved the nutritional quality in respect to protein content, DHA level and n6/n3PUFA ratio and they can be stored for 26 days in cold conditions like control group.

Ömer Alper Erdem, Mehmet Tolga Dincer
Evaluation of nutritional, physical and sensory properties of flathead grey mullet’s (Mugil cephalus) flesh after cooking
Untersuchung der ernährungsphysiologischen, physikalischen und sensorischen Eigenschaften von Großkopfmeeräschen-Filets (Mugil cephalus) nach dem Garen

In this study, effects of various cooking techniques (oven-baking, grilling, pan-frying) on proximate composition, fatty acids content, colour values, texture and sensory properties of flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) were investigated. Flathead grey mullet fillets were cooked according to common consumer preferences; oven baked, pan-fried in sunflower oil and grilled. Fatty acid composition has been analysed after each technique in order to determine the most appropriate cooking method that protected levels of long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. In each of the three cooking techniques, loss of omega-3 fatty acids was observed, particularly in EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) content. Because of the frying media, exhibiting high Linoleic Acid content, an increase in the total PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) content was observed in pan-fried samples. An important effect of heat on grilled samples was that no EPA could be preserved. On the other hand, oven baking turned out to represent the optimal cooking technique regarding textural, nutritional and sensorial properties.