Effects of Bifidobacterium animalis and inulin addition on quality characteristics of synbiotic milk chocolate
Auswirkungen der Zugabe von Bifidobacterium animalis und Inulin auf die Qualitätsmerkmale von synbiotischer Milchschokolade The aim of this study was to investigate effects of addition of B. animalis BB-12 (before tempering, BT or after tempering, AT) and inulin (6, 8, and 10%) on thermal, physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, textural properties and probiotic viability of milk chocolates during 60 days of storage. The free fatty acid (FFA) value of milk chocolates ranged from 0.66 to 0.89 (% oleic acid), in which higher ratio of inulin addition increased the FFA. Probiotics and inulin addition increased darkness of chocolates when compared to control. D[4,3] value of samples ranged from 9.26-17.97 µm. Higher inulin ratio in chocolates increased viscosity and yield value. These values in the group BT were higher than those of the group AT. BB-12 count of probiotic and synbiotic samples ranged from 7.09–8.06 log cfu/g during the storage. Higher inulin ratio increased the probiotics count in samples. Probiotic addition after tempering increased the count of probiotic and improved viability at the end of storage. The results showed that B. animalis BB-12 is capable of surviving in milk chocolate, at an appropriate bacteria count (>107 cfu/g), up to 60 days of storage at 18°C.
Nilgün Öncül, Ayşe Özbey, Hakan Erinç, Zeliha Yildirim
Microbiological, antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics of commercial Turkish kefirs
Mikrobiologische, antimikrobielle und antioxidative Eigenschaften kommerzieller türkischer Kefirs
In this study, the microbiological properties, physicochemical characteristics, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish commercial kefir products were investigated. The enumeration of Lactococci, aerobic lactobacilli, anaerobic lactobacilli, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and yeast were performed by spread plate technique and counted as 7.35, 6.62, 6.85, 6.24 and 2.35 log CFU/g, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of kefir was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Ten microorganisms, including seven Gram-positive strains and three Gram-negative strains were tested. While Listeria monocytogenes, L. ivanovii and Escherichia coli were the sensitive bacteria for all kefir samples, L. plantarum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and E. coli O157:H7 are the resistant bacteria. The means of pH, total phenolic content, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and lipid peroxidation were 4.03, 4.39 mg GAE/100 mL, 0.15 µmol Trolox/mL and 7.23%, respectively. From the beneficial health properties point of view, kefir appears to be a promising food.
Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from boza produced traditionally in the thrace region of Turkey
Isolierung und Identifizierung von Milchsäurebakterien aus Boza, die traditionell in der Region Thrakien der Türkei hergestellt wurden
Boza, a traditional beverage, has a microflora rich in lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, 112 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from five different boza brands (samples A–E) produced in the Trakya region of Turkey were identified by a Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method. In addition, the samples were examined for microbiological properties. The most common bacterial species and their distribution in the five boza samples were as follows: Lactobacillus fermentum (25%), Lactobacillus plantarum (25%) in sample A, L. plantarum (100%) in sample B, L. plantarum (16.67%), in sample C, Lactobacillus pentosus (15%), Lactobacillus brevis (25%), Leuconostoc lactis (25%), Leuconostoc citreum (25%), Lactobacillus paracasei (10%) in sample D and L. brevis (9.09%), Ln. citreum (27.27%), L. plantarum (9.09%), Lactococcus lactis (47.22%), Micrococcus yunnanensis (9.09%) in sample E. Especially, Boza samples from the Velimes¸e district (samples D and E) showed higher number of varieties of LAB compared to the other boza samples. However, determination of the technological properties of the identified microorganisms and production with a standard starter culture may be needed for standardization of boza production.
The effects of fermentation time on heat treated sucuk (turkish-style dry-fermented sausage)
Einfluss der Fermentationsdauer auf wärmebehandelte Sucuk (türkische, trockengepökelte Rohwurst)
As a result of the meat industry’s search for a shorter and safer production method; heat treatment became the most popular production method after a short fermentation in sucuk manufacture. Heat treatment of at least 68 °C is applied in the production of sausage which causes deterioration of quality attributes of the product. The effect of heat treatment at 60 °C for 10 minutes on sucuk attributes was determined during fermentation intervals and after heat treatment, and the properties of the heat treated sucuk samples were compared with the traditional sucuk. Heat treated sucuk was fermented in different fermentation intervals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days). The optimum fermentation time was tried to be determined for the sucuk samples with the desired properties. For traditional sucuk, fermentation continued for nine days. All processes were carried out under commercial and industrial conditions. Heat treatment increased dry matter contents (protein, fat, salt and ash), pH values, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of sucuk in all fermentation intervals. Moreover, heat treatment reduced moisture contents, free fatty acidity values, total viable and lactic acid bacteria, and the counts of Staphylococcus/Micrococcus and Enterobacteriaceae. Heat treatment decreased L*, a* and b* values and decreased residual nitrite, total haem pigment and nitrosomyoglobin amounts but increased nitrozation ratio. With the application of 60 °C for ten minutes of heat treatment, microbial destruction at higher temperatures around 70 °C degrees was reached after the fermentation period of 2 days. In terms of the measured parameters, it was determined that it was possible to produce sausage by applying heat treatment at 60 °C at the end of fermentation for at least two days. However, the added starter culture was also destructed by heat treatment especially after two days of fermentation. As the fermentation time increased, the sensory quality properties of the heat treated sucuk improved and approached to traditionally fermented sucuk.