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1) Department of economics and business administration, Division of arts and social sciences, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan; 2) Department of Agricultural Economics, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun 55139, Turkey; 3) Department of Economics, Government College University Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan

Evaluation of food safety among rural ­households: A study of measurements, ­determinants and policy implications

Bewertung der Lebensmittelsicherheit in ländlichen Haushalten: Eine Studie zu Messungen, Determinanten und politischen Implikationen

Shamsheer ul Haq1), Pomi Shahbaz2), Ismet Boz2), Syed Asif Ali Naqvi3)


The primary purpose of this study was to explore the rural households‘ food safety level in Punjab province of Pakistan. The participants were 200 randomly selected rural house­holds. Local knowledge, traditions, culture, and experiences were taken into con­sideration, and 44 food safety items were developed, and classified considering the World Health Organization’s “Five Keys” for food safety. A food safety index was developed based on factor analysis of these keys, namely “Separate,“ “Keep clean,“ “Well-cooked,“ “Keep at safe temperature” and “Safe water and raw material.“ Before application of ordered logistic regression procedure, the households were clustered into low, medium and high food safety groups. The overall average food safety index score was calculated as 0.59. The results of the regression analysis showed that education level of household-head, education of woman handling and cooking food, off-farm occupation of household-head, operational land, knowledge of foodborne-illness, knowledge of cross-contamination, knowledge of danger-zone, quality of drinking water, development level, drainage system, and house conditions influenced the food safety level significantly. The education programs at local dispensaries in local language, rebuilding roads, maintenance of drainage system, and provision of proper garbage disposing system should be ensured in the rural area to increase food safety level.

Keywords: Determinants of food safety, factor analysis, five keys of food safety, ­ordered regression, rural households

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Weitere Informationen zum Beitrag

Arch Lebensmittelhyg 72,
54–65 (2021)
DOI 10.2376/0003-925X-71-54


© M. & H. Schaper GmbH & Co.
ISSN 0003-925X

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