Zuzana Dicakova, Pavel Bystricky, Boris Semjon, Susanne Bauer, Sharhiar Vali, Peter Paulsen
Contents of biogenic amines and microbiota in typical slowak cheeses
Gehalte an biogenen Aminen und Mikroflora in typischen slowakischen Käsesorten
We analyzed 25 cheeses from the Slovak market for their contents of biogenic amines and polyamines, microbiota, pH and water activity. Contents of tryptamine were below the limit of detection (4.2 mg/kg) in 24 samples. For the other amines, contents varied considerably between samples, with lowest values below the limit of detection and maximum contents of 1117.5; 155.0; 52.7; 296.2; 157.0; 27.6; 49.1 mg/kg fresh matter for ß-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine, respectively. Histamine contents >100 mg/kg were detected in 2 semi-dry- and 1 dry-cheese sample. The amount of PHE ingested by a 60 or 200 g cheese portion would exceed the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level of 5 mg (single dose per consumer) in 6/25 and 11/25 samples, respectively. No sample exceeded food safety limits for Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Likewise, contents of coagulase-positive Staphylococci were consistently < 1 log cfu/g. Considerable contents of Enterobacteriaceae (6.9 log cfu/g) and E. coli (3.9 log cfu/g) were detected in one fresh cheese made from unpasteurized milk. High bacterial numbers were, in general, not associated with higher biogenic amine contents.
Mustafa Harmankaya, Ayşgül Korkmaz, Mehmet Musa Özcan, Durmuşli Ceylan, Cengiz Akköz, Nesim Dursun, Mustafa Mete Özcan
Evaluation of the mineral and trace elements of various breads
Mineralien und Spurenelemente verschiedener Brotsorten
Bread samples were provided randomly from six bakeries (A, B, C, D, E and F) located in different district Konya in Turkey. While K contents of white bread vary between 157.0 mg/100 g (Bakery-C) and 515 mg/100 g (Bakery-F), K contents of loaf bread changed between 220 mg/100 g (Bakery-D) to 549 mg/100 g (Bakery-F) (p<0.05). In addition, K contents of corn, rye and whole wheat breads changed between 215 mg/100 g (Bakery-E) and 362 mg/100 g (Bakery-A), 247 mg/100 g Bakery-D) and 328 mg/100 g (Bakery-F) to 248 mg/100 g (Bakery-B) and 394 mg/100 g (Bakery-Bakery-F), respectively. While P contents of loaf breads change between 125 mg/100 g (Bakery-D) and 357 mg/100 g (Bakery-F), P contents of bran-bread varied between 107 (Bakery-B) and 312 mg/100 g (Bakery-E) (p<0.05). Also, P contents of whole wheat breads changed between 141 mg/100 g (Bakery-B) and 240 mg/100 g (Bakery-A). The highest Ca contents of breads were found in bran-bread (758 mg/100 g) (Bakery-F), rye bread (697 mg/100 g) (Bakery-F), corn bread (377 mg/100 g) (Bakery-B) (p<0.05). The highest Fe was found in whole wheat bread (4.36 mg/100 g) (Bakery-A) sample. The highest Zn contents of breads were found in loaf bread (2.46 mg/100 g) (Bakery-F) and bran-bread (2.47 mg/100 g) (Bakery-D). Mineral contents of breads showed differences depending on bread types and bakery.
Bayram Çetin, André Becker, Amir Abdulmawjood
Microbiological quality assessment of meat and dairy products from small-scale factories in european Side of Turkey
Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Qualität von Fleisch- und Milchproduktion aus Kleinbetrieben der Türkei
The present study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality and safety of 67 meat and 112 dairy product samples manufactured by small-scale factories at the European side of Turkey. The results revealed that the bacteriological quality of the meat and dairy products tested was poor as Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and mold counts were found in 76.1 %, 47.8 %, 25.4 % and 50.7 % meat product samples, respectively, and in 67.0 %, 50.0 %, 2.8 % and 54.5 % dairy product samples respectively. Concerning food safety, E. coli O157 and Listeria monocytogenes were detected by real time PCR assay in 10.5 % and 10.5 % meat product samples, and 5.4 % and 6.3 % dairy product samples, respectively. These results indicated a generally poor microbiological quality of a broad variety of products and the existence of foodborne pathogens in these products highlighted serious health issues. Therefore, in order to increase microbiological safety and quality of products, manufactured in small-scale factories of Turkey, we recommend improving and questioning existing HACCP concepts and conducting a monitoring system as a control of success.
Muhammad Tayyab Rashid, Malik Muhammad Hashim, Asif Wali, Haile Ma, Lina Guo, Xiong Jian
Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial analysis and sensory characteristics of diet guava squash
Wirkung der Lagerung auf physikochemische, mikrobielle und sensorischen Eigenschaften eines diätischen Guaven-Fruchtsaftkonzentrats
Consumption of sugary drinks is linked with obesity, poor health, poor diet, and tooth decay. This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical, microbial analysis and sensory characteristics of diet guava squash prepared with the combination of two alternative sweeteners sucralose and saccharin under storage condition. The guava squash was transferred to sterilized 250 mL plastic bottles and stored for the period of 90 days at (30–35 °C) room temperature. The physiochemical parameters like titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total soluble solids, pH, microbial activity and sensory evaluation were analyzed regularly after the time interval of 15 days during the entire storage period. Microbial load was also investigated for the consumption quality of diet drink. Statistically significant differences were noted between the internal comparisons of all physicochemical parameters. The Vitamin C and acidity of the squash decreased, whereas pH and TSS increased during storage. No microbial activity and spoilage loss was founded in diet squash during the entire storage period, this make squash acceptable for consumers. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the total variance analyzed was (81.22 %) from two main components, whereas the total variation from the first component (PC1) was 45.69 % and from second component (PC2) was 36.03 %. According to sensory parameters, guava squash product prepared with the combination of (50 % sucralose and 50 % saccharin) was considered to be the most acceptable product by judge’s committee.